Ever wondered how specialized scopes revolutionize everything from competition shooting to adventurous safari hunts? Dive into the world of precision optics with our exploration of specialized scopes and their game-changing roles!
In the realm of precision shooting and hunting, the journey from basic sights to the cutting-edge world of specialized scopes has been nothing short of revolutionary. These optical marvels have evolved to cater to several distinct needs, ranging from the high-stakes precision of competition shooting to the adventurous landscapes of safari hunts. As we explore the diverse applications of specialized scopes, it becomes evident that these optical companions are not just tools; they are instruments of accuracy, range estimation, and an enhanced shooting experience.
- The Evolution Of Specialized Scopes
- Categories Of Specialized Scopes
- Competition Shooting Scopes
- Tactical/Urban Operations Scopes
- Safari Hunts Scopes
- Long-Range Precision Shooting Scopes
- Varmint/Pest Control Scopes
- Big Game Hunting Scopes
- Crossbow/Archery Scopes
- Airgun Scopes
- Hunting in Low-Light Conditions Scopes
- Precision Rimfire Shooting Scopes
- Law Enforcement/Military Sniper Scopes
- 3-Gun Shooting Scopes
- Low Recoil Firearms Scopes
- Hunting in Mountainous Terrain Scopes
- Concealed Carry Scopes
- Suppressor-Optimized Scopes
- Precision Shotgun Shooting Scopes
- Muzzleloader Scopes
- Selecting the Right Specialized Scope
- Frequently Asked Questions
- Can I use the same scope for both competition shooting and safari hunts?
- How do I determine the appropriate magnification for my specialized scope?
- What are some common mistakes to avoid when mounting a specialized scope?
- Can I upgrade my current scope to make it more suitable for specialized shooting?
The Evolution Of Specialized Scopes
Gone are the days when a simple reticle was good enough for all kinds of shooting. The current level of innovation in the optics industry has propelled us from those humble beginnings to a lust for today’s specialized scopes. The journey has been a dynamic shift between necessity and invention. As we unravel the layers of this evolution, we find that specialized scopes have transitioned from being mere aiming aids to becoming sophisticated instruments of unparalleled accuracy and purpose.
The evolution from rudimentary aiming aids to today’s specialized scopes represents more than just technological progress; it signifies a commitment to achieving perfection in every shot. In an era where hitting the mark was largely reliant on the shooter’s instincts, the integration of optics marked a significant turning point. The rudimentary reticles of yesteryears were the first steps towards precision, providing a basic framework for aiming. However, these early devices were constrained by their simplicity, unable to address the nuanced demands of various shooting scenarios.
As shooting sports and hunting practices grew in complexity, a chorus of distinct needs emerged from the landscape. It was no longer sufficient for a single reticle design to cater to all circumstances. Most marksmen now require specialized instruments that are finely tuned to perform harmoniously with different shooting styles and hunting terrains.
With the growing demands of marksmen and hunters, a new era of specialization dawned. The concept of a one-size-fits-all approach was cast aside in favor of crafting optical marvels that aligned precisely with specific pursuits. The creation of specialized scopes marked a leap forward in the art of shooting, where every detail was meticulously engineered to enhance accuracy and elevate the shooting experience.
In the competition shooting world, where precision is paramount, specialized scopes emerged as the preferred optics. These scopes embraced advanced features such as finely calibrated reticles, adjustable parallax settings, and minute windage and elevation adjustments. Each aspect was a testament to the relentless pursuit of perfection, as marksmen demanded optics that could keep pace with their ambitions.
Similarly, the wilderness beckoned with its own set of challenges for hunters. From the vast savannas to the dense forests, each terrain required its own optical companion. Specialized scopes for safari hunts materialized as aids that could bridge the gap between calculated precision and the unbridled unpredictability of nature. They incorporated features like wide field-of-view optics for tracking games on the move and illuminated reticle scopes that illuminated the path during the dim light of twilight.
Categories Of Specialized Scopes
Competition Shooting Scopes
Competition shooting is a realm of precision where fractions of an inch can make all the difference. Specialized scopes designed for this purpose are engineered to take accuracy to new heights. These scopes boast precision-engineered reticle designs that go beyond simple crosshairs. They often feature more complex reticles like Mil-Dot or Horus-style reticles with subtensions for holdover and windage adjustments. This allows competitors to quickly compensate for external factors without manual calculations.
One of the defining features is adjustable parallax. By fine-tuning the parallax setting, shooters can ensure the reticle stays precisely aligned with the target at various distances, eliminating parallax-induced errors. The Tactical turret in these scopes is designed for rapid and precise adjustments, and they help shooters to easily compensate for windage and elevation on the fly. Clear optics are also paramount for this shooting category.
Brands like Vortex, Nightforce, and Leupold are known for their competition-oriented scopes. The Vortex Razor HD Gen II, for instance, is revered for its precise adjustments and reticle options. The Leupold Mark 5HD is also loved for its lightweight design and impressive optical performance, a popular choice among long-range shooters. These scopes excel in PRS matches and other precision shooting competitions. Shooters can engage targets at varying distances with calculated adjustments, all while maintaining rapid target acquisition.
Tactical/Urban Operations Scopes
Scopes designed for tactical and urban operations are the tools of law enforcement and military personnel. They’re built to endure rigorous conditions and provide swift target acquisition. These scopes are constructed to withstand shocks, impacts, and extreme weather conditions. They often come with robust materials and coatings to prevent scratching and maintain optical clarity.
Low-light visibility is crucial for urban operations. Illuminated reticles with adjustable brightness settings ensure quick target acquisition in dimly lit environments. Bullet drop compensators (BDC) are often integrated into reticle designs, allowing for rapid adjustments at varying distances. Quick-adjust tactical turrets enable shooters to make precise changes while maintaining focus on the target.
Brands like Trijicon, EOTech, and Steiner are known for their tactical offerings. The Trijicon ACOG, with its fiber optic illumination, is widely used in tactical scenarios. In practice, tactical scopes shine during law enforcement operations, military engagements, and urban combat scenarios. Their durability, low-light capabilities, and rapid adjustments ensure efficient target engagement and situational awareness.
Safari Hunts Scopes
Safari hunts take hunters into diverse and challenging terrains. Scopes tailored for these hunts combine wide field-of-view optics with specialized features for low-light conditions. Wide field-of-view optics allow hunters to track moving game without losing sight of their target. This is crucial in open landscapes where animals can suddenly change direction. Illuminated reticles are a hallmark, aiding hunters during dawn and dusk when visibility is limited.
Durability is also essential to withstand the rigors of the wilderness. Rain, dust, and rough handling are common, making rugged construction a necessity.
Brands like Zeiss, Swarovski, and Leica offer scopes specifically designed for safari hunts. The Swarovski Z6i, celebrated for its clarity and versatility, is often favored.
Long-Range Precision Shooting Scopes
Long-range precision shooting requires optics that can deliver clarity at extended distances and allow for precise adjustments. Advanced reticle designs, such as the Horus H59 or Tremor3, offer holdover and windage references, aiding shooters in making precise calculations for distant shots.
Precise elevation adjustments, facilitated by tactical turrets, ensure shots land accurately at long distances. Clear optics are essential for spotting impacts on distant targets. These scopes are used in various long-range shooting scenarios, from target competitions to tactical applications. Shooters engage targets at considerable distances, relying on advanced reticles and precise adjustments to achieve accuracy.
Brands like Bushnell, Burris, and Nikon provide specialized scopes for long-range shooting. The Bushnell Elite Tactical XRS II, celebrated for its advanced reticle options, is often chosen by precision shooters.
Varmint/Pest Control Scopes
When it comes to varmint and pest control, the stakes are high, and accuracy is paramount. In this specialized category, scopes are engineered to provide sharp-eyed hunters with the tools they need to eliminate small and elusive targets from considerable distances. These scopes are a convergence of technology and skill, where each feature is tailored to enhance precision and ensure the successful eradication of pests.
A defining characteristic of these scopes is their medium magnification settings. Varmint hunters need to identify and engage pests that might be situated at quite a distance. The ability to zoom in with the needed magnification ensures that no detail is missed, transforming the hunter into a sharp-eyed predator.
One common feature found in these scopes is the Mil-Dot reticle. This specialized reticle design isn’t just an aesthetic choice; it’s a tool for precision. Mil-Dot reticles are equipped with subtensions that allow hunters to estimate range effectively. This aids in making accurate shots on pests without the need for complex calculations.
Varmint hunters have come to rely on the Nikon Prostaff P3 Target EFR scope as an invaluable tool. When faced with elusive pests like rodents or small predators, this scope’s magnification settings, ranging from 3x to 9x, come into play. This magnification range allows for clear identification of targets at varying distances.
Big Game Hunting Scopes
In the world of big game hunting, adaptability and reliability are paramount. Every hunting environment presents unique challenges, and specialized scopes crafted for big game hunts are designed to conquer these challenges with a blend of versatility and power. One standout feature of scopes for big game hunting is their variable magnification. This innovation grants hunters the ability to seamlessly adjust zoom levels, catering to varying distances and terrains. From tracking game at a distance to quickly acquiring targets in close quarters, the flexibility of variable magnification is a game-changer for big game hunters.
Durability is another defining trait. Big game hunting often involves traversing rugged landscapes and braving harsh weather conditions. Scopes engineered for this purpose are built to withstand the rigors of these environments, ensuring that the scope remains operational even in the toughest situations.
The Swarovski Z5 epitomizes the essence of a versatile big-game hunting scope. With a magnification range of 3.5x to 18x and a 44mm objective lens, this scope adapts effortlessly to varying distances. Its durable build is a testament to its suitability for hunting in diverse terrains, whether it’s open plains, dense forests, or mountainous landscapes.
Crossbow and archery pursuits are characterized by a unique trajectory that arrows or bolts follow. Scopes in this category are meticulously crafted to cater to these trajectories, ensuring that each shot hits its mark with utmost precision.
A pivotal feature of these scopes is the specialized reticle. These reticles are adorned with ranging markers that correspond to the trajectory of arrows or bolts. These markers assist archers in aiming accurately at various distances, eliminating the need for manual calculations and allowing for rapid and confident shooting.
Crossbow hunters, armed with scopes like the Excalibur Twilight DLX, venture into the field with the assurance of precision. The Twilight DLX’s specialized reticle markers align perfectly with arrow trajectories, enabling accurate shots across different distances. The scope’s parallax adjustments further enhance accuracy, ensuring that each shot counts. Whether it’s pursuing a game or participating in archery competitions, this scope is a trusted companion that empowers archers to excel.
Air rifles present a unique challenge due to their distinct recoil characteristics, demanding scopes that can handle this particular trait. Scopes designed for air rifles stand as a testament to engineering prowess because they can withstand the two-way recoil generated by these firearms.
The hallmark of the best air rifle scopes is their robust build, carefully crafted to endure the recoil generated. Unlike traditional firearms, air rifles produce a two-way recoil that can put strain on lesser optics. Specialized airgun scopes rise to the challenge with their durable construction, ensuring longevity and reliability over countless shots.
Airgun projectiles travel at considerably slower velocities compared to conventional bullets. This disparity in speed necessitates reticles with subtensions tailored specifically to the trajectory of airgun pellets. These reticles allow for accurate holdovers and elevation adjustments, compensating for the unique ballistic characteristics of airgun ammunition.
The Hawke Sport Optics Vantage 4-12×40 AO is a staple in the arsenal of airgun enthusiasts. Its robust construction ensures that it can handle the distinct recoil of air rifles without compromising performance. The adjustable objective (AO) feature is a boon, enabling precise focus at various distances. What truly sets this scope apart is its reticle subtensions, which are meticulously calibrated for pellet trajectory. Whether engaged in backyard plinking, pest control, or competitive airgun shooting, the Hawke Vantage delivers accurate shots and unmatched reliability.
Hunting in Low-Light Conditions Scopes
For those who relish the challenge of hunting during the enchanting hours of dawn and dusk, specialized scopes optimized for low-light shooting are a necessity. These scopes are meticulously designed to excel when light is scarce, providing hunters with enhanced visibility and accuracy.
The hallmark of these scopes is their large objective lenses. By gathering more light, these lenses effectively brighten the view through the scope, compensating for the diminishing natural light during the twilight hours. This increased light transmission ensures that hunters can spot and identify the game even in challenging lighting environments.
Illuminated reticles are another feature that sets these scopes apart. When the surroundings are dimly lit, an illuminated reticle acts as a beacon, providing a clear aiming point. This is particularly useful when targeting games during the transition from darkness to light or vice versa.
The Leupold VX-3i is a preferred choice among hunters who venture into the low-light challenges of dawn and dusk. With its 3.5x to 10x magnification range and a 40mm objective lens, this scope ensures ample light transmission, allowing for clear visuals even in the subtlest of lighting conditions. The Duplex reticle, a classic Leupold design, combined with the Twilight Max Light Management System, enhances contrast and extends hunting time into the magic of twilight.
Precision Rimfire Shooting Scopes
Precision rimfire shooting demands exceptional accuracy, especially at shorter distances. Scopes engineered for these competitions are finely tuned to meet the stringent accuracy requirements of the sport. The standout feature in these rimfire scopes is their reticle subtensions, painstakingly calibrated to match the ballistics of rimfire ammunition.
The Athlon Optics Midas TAC is a revered choice among rimfire shooters striving for perfection. With a versatile magnification range of 6x to 24x, this scope excels in various rimfire shooting scenarios. The reticle subtensions are designed to correspond perfectly with the ballistics of rimfire ammunition, facilitating precise adjustments for different distances. Whether engaged in competitive shooting or honing marksmanship skills, the Athlon Midas TAC ensures accurate shots and consistent performance.
Law Enforcement/Military Sniper Scopes
In precision marksmanship, scopes designed for law enforcement and military sniper roles stand as pinnacle tools of accuracy and durability. These scopes are engineered to excel in high-stakes situations, where split-second decisions and pinpoint accuracy are paramount.
Accurate ranging is a standout feature in these scopes. Snipers must calculate distances to targets swiftly and precisely. To aid in this, these scopes often incorporate mil-based reticles or advanced range-finding reticles that ensure accurate measurements even in dynamic scenarios.
Scopes like the Nightforce Optics ATACR are the chosen instruments for elite marksmen. With a first focal plane reticle, shooters have the advantage of making accurate adjustments at any magnification level, ensuring consistency in calculations. The advanced reticle design assists in ranging and holdover calculations, enabling precise shots over varying distances. These scopes find their application in law enforcement operations and military sniping, where every shot holds significant weight and demands unparalleled accuracy.
3-Gun Shooting Scopes
The realm of 3-gun competitions is a thrilling fusion of speed and precision, demanding scopes that seamlessly balance lightning-fast target acquisition with accurate long-range shooting. These specialized scopes are meticulously designed to elevate the performance of shooters.
3-gun shooters navigate through an array of dynamic scenarios, requiring rapid adaptation to changing targets and distances. The customizable reticle stands as a hallmark feature of scopes in this category. These reticles are ingeniously designed with multiple aiming points, enabling shooters to engage targets at various ranges without the need for constant adjustments.
The Vortex Optics Razor HD Gen III is a preferred choice among 3-gun competitors. Its 1-10x magnification range strikes the ideal balance between swift target acquisition at short distances and the precision needed for long-range shots. The illuminated JM-1 BDC reticle offers instant aiming points for different ranges, facilitating quick target engagement. Furthermore, the tactile and audible turrets enable shooters to make rapid adjustments without breaking their rhythm.
Low Recoil Firearms Scopes
Scopes tailored for firearms with minimal recoils, such as pistol-caliber carbines, are engineered for compactness and lightweight design while retaining essential features for accurate shooting.
These scopes are designed to complement the lightweight nature of low-recoil firearms. Their compact and lightweight build ensures that the scope doesn’t add unnecessary bulk, allowing for easy handling and maneuverability. Despite their smaller scope size, they maintain features like clear optics and simple reticles. These aspects are essential for accurate shooting in close to mid-range scenarios, where the focus is on speed and precision.
The SIG Sauer Romeo5 red dot sight is a sought-after choice for firearms with minimal recoil. With its compact and lightweight construction, this sight enables rapid target acquisition without compromising the firearm’s balance. The red dot reticle offers a straightforward and effective aiming point, making it ideal for close-quarters engagements where speed is crucial. Whether mounted on a pistol-caliber carbine or another low-recoil firearm, the Romeo5 significantly enhances accuracy and speed, making it a valuable asset in fast-paced scenarios.
Hunting in Mountainous Terrain Scopes
The rugged landscapes of mountainous terrain offer both allure and challenges to hunters. Scaling steep slopes, traversing uneven ground, and maintaining accuracy in demanding shooting angles require specialized scopes designed for these exacting conditions. These scopes are a culmination of engineering, focusing on lightweight construction, compact size, and rugged durability.
Scopes tailored for mountain hunting are constructed with lightweight materials, shedding unnecessary weight to enhance the mobility of the hunter. This reduction in weight becomes essential when ascending challenging slopes and navigating treacherous terrain. The compact size of these scopes ensures that they don’t become unwieldy burdens during the climb. A streamlined profile allows hunters to move freely through tight spaces without their equipment hindering their progress.
The harsh mountain environment demands durability. Scopes designed for this terrain are built to withstand rugged conditions, including exposure to rough surfaces, moisture, and unpredictable weather. This ruggedness ensures that the scope remains functional even when the conditions are at their most challenging.
Concealed Carry Scopes
In scenarios where concealed carry is paramount, such as self-defense or law enforcement, scopes must strike a balance between unobtrusive profile and aiming accuracy. These scopes are engineered to allow users to carry concealed firearms without compromising on their ability to accurately engage targets when necessary.
The Trijicon RMR Type 2 red dot sight embodies the concept of discreet accuracy. Ideal for handguns that are concealed in a holster, this sight offers a low-profile design and lightweight construction, ensuring that the firearm’s concealment is not compromised. The compact nature of the RMR Type 2 makes it a seamless addition to compact handguns, enabling comfortable and discreet carrying. Whether in self-defense situations or law enforcement duties, this reflex sight equips users with the tools to respond swiftly and precisely when every moment counts.
The integration of suppressors (silencers) with firearms has revolutionized shooting, offering noise reduction and enhancing stealth. Scopes tailored for suppressor-equipped firearms embrace the altered ballistics resulting from subsonic ammunition. These specialized scopes often feature reticle designs calibrated to compensate for the unique trajectory of subsonic bullets, ensuring accuracy and precision in suppressed shooting scenarios.
Suppressors alter the behavior of bullets by reducing their velocity to subsonic levels. This shift in ballistics necessitates scopes that can account for the slower bullet flight. Specially calibrated reticle designs allow shooters to make accurate adjustments, ensuring the bullet hits the intended target despite the altered trajectory.
Suppressor-optimized scopes often provide extra elevation adjustments to accommodate the bullet’s drop over the extended flight path. These additional adjustments enable shooters to fine-tune their shots, compensating for the changes in bullet trajectory that suppressors introduce.
The Burris Veracity 2-10×42 rifle scope exemplifies the precision required for suppressed shooting. Tailored for suppressor users, it features the Ballistic Plex E1 reticle, which takes into account the altered trajectory of subsonic ammunition. This reticle design ensures that shots remain accurate and on target, even in suppressed scenarios where noise reduction is paramount. With its 2-10x magnification range, this scope provides versatility for different shooting distances, making it a dependable choice for hunters and marksmen who prioritize both stealth and precision.
Precision Shotgun Shooting Scopes
Precision shotgun shooting demands quick acquisition and tracking, whether in clay sports or turkey hunting. To excel in these fast-paced shooting disciplines, specialized scopes are designed to offer wide fields of view, low magnification, and illuminated reticles for swift and precise aiming.
The Aimpoint Micro H-2 red dot sight epitomizes the speed and accuracy required in precision shotgun shooting. Renowned for its compact size and clear red dot reticle, this sight facilitates target acquisition and tracking. It excels in clay shooting competitions, where shooters need to engage moving targets with split-second timing.
Muzzleloader rifles offer a connection to the past, requiring specialized scopes that account for the unique ballistics of muzzleloader projectiles. These scopes are characterized by specialized reticle designs calibrated to the ballistic characteristics of muzzleloader bullets, along with features that enhance comfort and accuracy.
The Nikon INLINE XR BDC 300 muzzleloader scope caters to enthusiasts of this time-honored firearm. Its BDC 300 reticle is precisely calibrated for the trajectory of muzzleloader bullets. This specialized design ensures accurate aiming at varying distances, accommodating the nuances of muzzleloader ballistics. The scope’s generous eye relief further enhances safety and comfort during shooting sessions.
Selecting the Right Specialized Scope
When it comes to achieving shooting precision and success, the role of a specialized scope cannot be understated. These optical companions are finely tuned instruments designed to enhance accuracy in specific shooting scenarios, ranging from long-range precision shooting to concealed carry self-defense. However, the journey to finding the perfect specialized scope is not a one-size-fits-all endeavor. Several critical factors must be carefully considered to ensure that the scope seamlessly complements the shooter’s intended use and shooting style.
The magnification range of a scope dictates its versatility in different shooting situations. For scenarios that demand rapid target acquisition and close-quarters engagements, a lower magnification range is preferable. On the other hand, long-range precision shooting necessitates higher magnification levels for clear identification of distant targets. Selecting a scope with an appropriate magnification range ensures that the shooter can confidently engage targets at various distances.
The reticle, or crosshair, is more than just a visual aid—it’s a critical component of accurate aiming. Different shooting disciplines require distinct reticle designs. A Mil-Dot reticle aids in range estimation, making it ideal for competition shooting and varmint hunting. Illuminated reticles are essential for low-light conditions, such as dawn and dusk hunting. Choosing the right reticle type ensures that the shooter has the tools necessary to achieve precise aiming and hit the mark consistently.
Durability and Construction
The shooting environment can be harsh and demanding, ranging from rugged terrains to adverse weather conditions. A specialized scope must be built to withstand these challenges. Look for scopes with durable construction, shockproof features, and waterproofing. Rigorous field use requires a scope that can endure rough handling, recoil, and exposure to moisture without compromising its performance.
Specialized scopes come in a range of price points, and budget constraints are a significant consideration. While premium scopes offer advanced features and exceptional quality, there are also options that deliver excellent performance without breaking the bank. It’s crucial to strike a balance between quality and cost, ensuring that the chosen scope meets the shooter’s needs and preferences without exceeding their budget.
Matching to Intended Use and Shooting Style
Perhaps the most critical aspect of selecting a specialized scope is aligning it with the intended use and shooting style. A scope designed for long-range precision shooting might not be suitable for fast-paced 3-gun competitions. Understanding the demands of the shooting discipline and how the scope’s features cater to those demands is paramount. The right scope enhances the shooter’s strengths and compensates for the challenges inherent in their chosen shooting style.
Frequently Asked Questions
Can I use the same scope for both competition shooting and safari hunts?
While some scopes can work for both competition shooting and safari hunts, it’s generally best to choose a scope specialized for each activity. Competition shooting scopes prioritize accuracy at different ranges and quick target acquisition. Safari hunting scopes focus on wide field of view and low-light visibility for tracking moving game. Using a specialized scope for each activity ensures optimal performance.
How do I determine the appropriate magnification for my specialized scope?
The appropriate magnification depends on your shooting style and target distance. For close-quarters or fast-paced shooting like 3-gun competitions, lower magnification (1-4x) is suitable. Long-range shooting requires higher magnification (10-24x) for precise aiming. Consider the shooting scenario and choose a magnification range that allows you to clearly identify and engage targets at your typical distances.
What are some common mistakes to avoid when mounting a specialized scope?
Avoid mistakes like insufficient eye relief, improper leveling of the reticle, overtightening mounting screws, and not using proper torque values. Additionally, ensure that the scope is securely mounted to prevent shifting during recoil. Properly mounting the scope ensures consistent accuracy and prevents damage to both the scope and firearm.
Can I upgrade my current scope to make it more suitable for specialized shooting?
While some scopes offer upgradeable features, it’s often more effective to invest in a specialized scope designed for your intended shooting activity. Upgrading may not fully transform a scope’s capabilities to match the demands of specialized shooting. Consider getting a scope specifically engineered for your desired shooting style.
Mike Hardesty is a published freelance gun writer. With dozens of articles and reviews published in Pew Pew Tactical, Snipercountry.com, and TTAG (The Truth About Guns), Mike is considered a firearms expert. His special area of expertise is handguns.
Mike is a long-time shooter. He has been punching paper targets, taking deer and other game and shooting at competitions since about 1975. Other related pursuits include reloading and bullet casting. He currently reloads for over 10 calibers, both handgun and rifle. His reloads, particularly for 9mm, were in great demand during the height of the ammo shortage among family and friends. He donated hundreds of rounds to informal shooting sessions. He was quoted as saying “I do not sell my reloads but I sure will help my guys shoot ’em for free!”. He has a few cherished firearms that he has inherited or otherwise procured — those are his favorites.
He earned B.S. and M.S. degrees from Indiana State University in 1974-1975.
He’s a firearm experts and is the founder of mhardesty.com.